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OFFICIALLY CONFIRMED: The United States vaccination requirement is ending on May 11th at the end of the day! Here are the current rules.


The United States is statistically the most popular destination for Canadians (by far), and travelers from many other countries love going there as well. Unfortunately, there are still COVID-19 travel requirements in the USA (even though it’s not logical).

As part of Flytrippers’ mission to help travelers, here is a complete guide on how to travel to the United States specifically. This guide is for all nationalities, as the USA’s COVID-19 rules are the same for Canadians, for Brits, or for Indians for example.

(By the way, for Canadians, Flytrippers always spots cheap flight deals to the USA on its main page, and there are currently 2 very good Aeroplan welcome bonuses that each give you 5 roundtrip reward flights to the USA — the American Express Cobalt Card, one of the highest currently available in Canada and always the best card overall, or the TD Aeroplan Visa Infinite Card with an increased offer ending May 28th!)

Here’s how to travel to the United States right now.


Overview of how to travel to the United States

First, I’ll share the essentials you need to know about how to travel to the United States right now (since April 2021, I have gone there 15 times myself and I’m following the rules closely every day for you).

Then below, I’ll give you:

  • ALL the details about every aspect of the USA rules
  • The simplified step-by-step process to travel to the USA (based on your vaccination status)

So here’s the infographic that visually summarizes the USA’s rules.

See the full-size infographic or share on Facebook


Here are the basics of the rules to travel to the USA:

  • The fact rules still exist is not logical at all
    • Especially rules that are as antiscience as these
  • There are only entry rules (in the USA)
    • No rules to board flights itself and no rules to exit
    • There has never been anything other than rules for entry
    • As in every other country by the way (except Canada🤡)
  • Many people mix up plenty of distinct things together
    • Congress and the CDC have made recent announcements 
    • That had nothing to do with removing the entry rules
  • The rules theoretically end on May 11th, 2023
    • They have not confirmed it would be renewed
    • They have not confirmed it would not be renewed
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Here are the rules themselves:

  • There is no test requirement
    • Proof of a negative test cannot replace proof of vaccination
  • The requirement exists for almost every mode of entry
    • Entry by air, including transits (from all countries)
    • Entry by land (from Canada and Mexico)
    • Entry by sea (ONLY from Canada and Mexico)
  • The requirement absurdly isn’t in effect for 1 mode of entry

And here are a few important details about the requirement:

  • It’s not often enforced by land
  • There are a few exemptions, especially for all minors
  • The definition of “vaccinated” was just changed
  • The definition is still very broad — and objectively outdated
  • Many types of proof are accepted (no QR code required)
  • There are 2 government websites for all the official details


Details of how to travel to the United States

Here’s all the information you need about COVID-19 travel rules in the USA.


Logic of the rules to travel to the USA

There is absolutely no rational or scientific justification possible for these current rules in the USA; it’s not even debatable.

The experts at the World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended eliminating all restrictions since January 2022 (over 15 months ago) and almost every country has eliminated everything (even Canada, that was among worst in terms of covidanxiety)!

The WHO analysis demonstrated that restrictions had no impact at all (completely unsurprisingly for all those who kept their critical thinking skills instead of just blindly believing everything politicians say).

President Biden said the pandemic was over, their public health agency said having rules based on vaccination status no longer made sense, and every epidemiology expert said that vaccines received 2 years ago don’t protect any more…

So naturally, the USA still has a rule based on vaccination status that accepts a vaccine received 2+ years ago (but not a negative test or proof of immunity) and that is not even in effect if you arrive by certain countries by boat to boot…

And it’s those who criticize that who are wrong according to some who won’t get over all this until 2025, if ever…


Rules to travel once you’ve entered the USA

There has never been any requirement for a domestic flight in the USA (like in almost every county in the world) or for exiting the USA.

There are only rules for entry, it’s that simple.

Once you’ve entered (no matter how), there are no requirements for domestic flights (no matter who you are or your nationality). International flights that depart from the USA (including to return to Canada by plane) only apply the entry rules for that destination (if any). Because entry rules are the only thing that exist.

It’s one of the reasons why many Canadians fly out of American airports across the border.

Finally, some American territories (and even the state of Hawaii) had their own stricter entry rules IN ADDITION to the federal entry rules, but this is no longer the case.


Confusion around the rules to travel to the USA

Many people (including many media outlets) often mix up plenty of different travel rules and announcements together.

Absolutely nothing has changed to the vaccination requirement itself since the start, except the changes to the definition of “vaccinated” (the vaccines accepted), as recently as April 2023. That hasn’t changed anything about the end date for the requirement.

Congress has voted on the national emergency declaration (both the House and Senate), but that has nothing to do with entry rules. Even the USA’s other state of emergency, the public health state of emergency, is completely distinct and separate from the requirements for travelers.

The House of Representatives actually did vote to end the vaccination requirement for travelers back in early February, but the Senate needs to do the same and has done nothing since February 2023. We’re following this too.


End date for the rules to travel to the USA

The current requirement theoretically expires at the end of the day on May 11th. It’s not certain though! Every previous time, the requirement was extended about 1 week before the expiry date.

NOTHING has been announced. Not an extension, not a removal. Nothing.

As soon as something is announced, this guide will be updated! May 4th should be the day when an announcement is done, based on the previous extensions. We should know by the end of this week either way!

This time, it seems plausible for the requirement not to be extended at least.

Because Biden announced a long time ago that the public health emergency will end May 11. This has nothing to do with the entry requirement per se (it’s completely separate), but it likely means the vaccination requirement will end then too.

Especially since they extended it until the 11th (instead of the 10th the previous time) to coincide with the end of the state of emergency. They extended it for just 1 month and 1 day (instead of 3 months the previous time), so it’s looking good.

Many find it strange that they updated the definition of “vaccinated” twice in April 2023 (after making zero changes at all to the requirement since it’s been in place in November 2021) if they were going to remove it just a few weeks later. Indeed, but that was probably just to align with the new CDC recommendations.

I still believe the removal of the requirement on May 11th is the most likely scenario. But nothing is guaranteed, especially when they clearly don’t care about being logical.


Updates about the rules to travel to the USA

If you want to be the first to receive all the updates about the American rules (whether it’s an extension of the requirement), sign up for our free newsletter.

(Over 100,000 people already receive all our content for savvy travelers!)


Test requirement to travel to the USA

There is no COVID-19 test requirement to travel to the United States since June 2022.

There is also no option to provide proof of a negative test as an alternative to proof of vaccination (it’s one of the only countries in the world with such an antiscience rule).


Requirements to transit in the USA

The rules are exactly the same if you are just connecting in an American airport on your way to one of the many countries open to Canadian travelers or if you are just going to the USA. It’s one of the few countries in the world where sterile international transits simply do not exist.

Transiting in the USA has therefore always required you to enter the country the same as those who aren’t transiting. And that means you always had to follow all the same entry rules even if you just have a layover in the USA (which is far from being the case for connections in other countries).

You can read the detailed article about the transits in the United States during COVID-19.


Vaccination requirement to travel to the USA

The United States has a vaccination requirement for almost all modes of entry.

You need to be vaccinated if you enter the USA:

  • By air, including transits (from all countries)
  • By land (from Canada and Mexico)
  • By sea (ONLY from Canada and Mexico)

You do not need to be vaccinated if you enter the USA:

  • By sea (from countries OTHER than Canada and Mexico)

It’s really true! Absurdly, the requirement doesn’t apply everywhere: there are absolutely no COVID-19 requirements if you enter by ferry from the Dominican Republic or the Bahamas, for example).

Quite the science, right? Maybe the sea breeze in those very specific locations purifies your body of COVID-19?

(“Every rule is based on science!”)


Enforcement of the rules to travel to the USA

Just because the rule exists doesn’t mean it’s always enforced though!

By air, airlines are the only ones in charge of enforcing the requirement, not customs agents. Airlines are applying it less and less strictly (definitely not 100% of the time), but they apply it often.

By land, it’s really not enforced very strictly. Many customs agents don’t ask anything at all and among those who ask a question about vaccination, most don’t ask for proof. We’ve received hundreds of testimonials and it doesn’t seem to be asked often.

By sea (from Canada or Mexico), we didn’t get many testimonials unfortunately. We can assume it’s similar to the land border, since customs agents are in charge of enforcement there too.

By sea (from countries OTHER than Canada or Mexico), I repeat that it’s not just not enforced: it’s really that the rule simply does NOT exist. It’s the only way that’s guaranteed to work for those who are not vaccinated, according to the official rules.


Exemptions to the rules to travel to the USA

There are 4 main exemptions to the United States vaccination requirement:

  • Those who are American
  • Those who are under 18
  • Those on some “essential” trips
  • Those with proof of medical exemptions

Americans (including certain types of immigrants) are all exempt, because all along the pandemic, a country’s entry restrictions never applied to their own citizens (even though a lot of people had a hard time understanding this). It’s in part why the rule still exists: many Americans don’t even know it still exists since they’re exempt (or don’t care since they’re exempt).

The most relevant exemption for foreign travelers is that all minors are completely exempt. To be very clear, there is NO requirement for anyone under the age of 18. That simple.

Essential trips that are exempt include trips for airplane crews and boat crews, diplomatic/government trips, humanitary/emergency trips, and trips approved by certain Cabinet secretaries (their equivalent of ministers).

Finally, medical exemptions include those who participated in certain vaccine trials and those who have proof of medical contraindication for the vaccine (with a signed letter from a doctor).


Definition of “vaccinated” to travel to the USA

This was recently updated (on April 19th and April 27th).

The definition of “vaccinated” is very broad in the USA (and still outdated scientifically). This definition is obviously not necessarily the same in every country.

You are considered vaccinated by the USA if you have:

  • The accepted proof of your vaccination (see next section)
  • The number of doses required (either 1 or 2 doses, depending on the type)
  • The minimum period after your last required dose (14 days)

Here are the vaccines accepted with just 1 dose:

  • Johnson & Johnson/Janssen
  • CanSinoBIO/Convidecia
  • Pfizer-BioNTech Bivalent (or received AFTER August 16th, 2022)
  • Moderna Bivalent(or received AFTER August 16th, 2022)

Here are the vaccines accepted if you have received 2 doses:

  • Pfizer-BioNTech/Comirnaty (if received BEFORE August 16th, 2022)
  • Moderna/Spikevax (if received BEFORE August 16th, 2022)
  • AstraZeneca/Vaxzevria
  • Medicago
  • Novavax
  • Covaxin
  • Covishield
  • BIBP/Sinopharm
  • CoronaVac/Sinovac
  • Nuvaxovid/Novavax
  • Covovax

There is a minimum wait time of 14 days after your last required dose as mentioned.

But there is no maximum validity period for your doses. So even vaccines received over 2 years ago are accepted. No booster dose is required, rendering all this very antiscientific.

To be very clear, if you got Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna, only 1 dose is required if was received AFTER August 16th 2022. You can still enter with those types of vaccines if you got them before, but then you need 2 doses. That’s what just changed.


Proof of vaccination to travel to the USA

Having a QR code is not necessary, contrary to another common myth.

First, the proof must have 4 mandatory things:

  • Your full name AND either your date of birth or passport number
  • The source of the proof (name of the country, health agency, or provider)
  • The vaccine type (manufacturer)
  • The vaccination date

Officially, there are 3 options accepted as proof:

  • Verifiable records (digital or paper)
    • Vaccination certificate with QR code
    • Digital pass via Smartphone application with QR code
    • Examples:
  • Non-verifiable paper records
    • Printout of COVID-19 vaccination record
    • Printout of a COVID-19 vaccination certificate
    • Must have been issued at national or subnational level or by an authorized vaccine provider
    • Example:
      • The CDC vaccination card
  • Non-verifiable digital records
    • Digital photos of vaccination card or record
    • Downloaded vaccine record from official source
    • Downloaded vaccination certificate from official source
    • Examples:
      • Public health agency
      • Government agency
      • Other authorized vaccine provider
      • Mobile phone application without QR code

The proof doesn’t officially need to be in English, but in the case of entry by air, since airlines are the ones who verify, they need to be able to read it and they may have their own language requirements.

Like anything in the world of travel, it’s simpler if it’s in English.


Official government websites to travel to the USA

For all your trips, you always need to look at the countries’ entry rules.

For rules related to COVID-19, it could not be any simpler to find them: the official database with all the entry rules is the same for literally every country! It’s the IATA website.

However, what is not as simple is finding the specifics for each country’s rules.

For the United States, there are 2 government websites with all the official information:

  • CDC website (requirement by air)
  • U.S. CBP website (requirement by land and by sea from Canada/Mexico)

The CDC website is the one with the most information if you have questions about something we haven’t covered in this guide.

Timeline of rules to travel to the USA

Here are all the relevant dates and announcements since 2021:

  • November 8th, 2021
    • Vaccination requirement in effect
    • Until November 8th, 2022 (theoretically)
    • Test requirement in effect
  • June 12th, 2022
    • End of test requirement
  • November 2nd, 2022
    • Extension of vaccination requirement announced
    • Until January 8th, 2023 (theoretically)
  • January 3rd, 2023
    • Extension of vaccination requirement announced
    • Until April 10th, 2023 (theoretically)
  • January 30th, 2023
    • Elimination of the national state of emergency announced
    • Elimination of the public health emergency announced
    • Planned for May 11th, 2023
  • February 8th, 2023
    • Vote against the vaccination requirement in the U.S. House
    • No impact (the Senate would need to pass this too)
  • March 29th, 2023
    • Vote to end the national state of emergency in the Senate
    • No impact on the vaccination requirement
  • April 4th, 2023
    • Extension of vaccination requirement announced
    • Until May 11th, 2023 (theoretically)
  • April 10th, 2023
    • End of the national state of emergency 
    • No impact on the vaccination requirement
  • April 19th, 2023
    • New definition of “vaccinated” announced
  • April 27th, 2023
    • Change to the new definition of “vaccinated” announced
  • May 11th, 2023
    • End of the national state of emergency (planned
    • Theoretical end of the vaccination requirement (to be continued)


Step-by-step process to travel to the USA (based on vaccination status)

As a reminder, if you haven’t read how to travel during the pandemic, there are always the same 2 simple sets of rules for any trip and any destination:

  • To enter the countries where you are going to
  • To enter Canada for your return (or your own country if it’s another one)

There are no other pandemic rules, it’s really not that complicated.

Here are the details of those rules for trips to the United States, based on your vaccination status.


Vaccinated adult travelers: Rules to travel to the USA

Here is how vaccinated Canadian adults can currently travel to the USA based on those 2 sets of rules you always have to look at.


Set of rules #1

  • Rules to enter the USA (by air, by land)
    • You do not need anything at all to enter the USA, just your proof of vaccination


Set of rules #2

  • Rules to enter Canada (by air, land, sea, etc.)
    • All rules have been lifted for all travelers


Basically, it’s very simple if you’re vaccinated: Enter the USA by land or by air with no requirement (you can then fly anywhere in the country test-free of course).

Then there is nothing left to enter Canada.


We recommend joining savvy travelers like me and becoming a NEXUS member, it makes everything infinitely faster: you’ll avoid almost all wait lines for travel in Canada and the USA. Another pro tip that’s so simple but that most people, unfortunately, don’t even know exists.


Unvaccinated adult travelers: Rules to travel to the USA

Here is how unvaccinated Canadian adults can currently travel to the USA based on the mode of entry.


Entering the USA by land while unvaccinated

It’s simple: Unvaccinated Canadian adults theoretically cannot enter the United States by land at all since November 8, 2021.

Since many of you keep asking: yes, thousands of unvaccinated Canadians have entered the USA by land for over a year.

That’s because most customs agents don’t even ask about your vaccination status. And if they do ask, they often only ask if you are vaccinated without asking for proof. They certainly don’t ask often, based on my own experience and the many many testimonials we’ve received.

To be clear, if they ask for your vaccination status and you tell them you are not vaccinated, they will always deny your entry. When the land border was closed, I tried entering for an essential trip and I was denied entry (my business trip wasn’t essential enough). The agent explained that this had no consequences and did not affect my NEXUS membership or anything at all, and I had no issues entering after it reopened (of course that’s a different context for a denied entry obviously).

If you happened to go to the USA by land and they didn’t ask anything (or if they did ask and you lied and they didn’t ask for proof), you would not need a test, as nobody needs a test by land.

You could then fly anywhere in the country vaccine-free and test-free of course, as the USA has never had any requirement for domestic travel (like almost every country in the world).

You would not need anything to enter Canada upon your return (you could even fly back to Canada directly obviously), because all of Canada’s rules have been lifted for all travelers.


Entering the USA by sea while unvaccinated

The rules by water are exactly the same as by land if you arrive from Canada or Mexico.

However, you can enter by ferry from the Dominican Republic or the Bahamas with no requirements. That’s allowed. Because “The Science™”!


Entering the USA by air while unvaccinated

As mentioned, those who want to go somewhere in the USA by plane usually prefer entering by land and hope the customs agent doesn’t ask about their vaccination (or lie and hope they don’t ask for proof) and then fly anywhere in the country from a USA airport near the border.

Because as you probably know, while Canada lifted the mandatory vaccination requirement to fly from a Canadian airport (a requirement no other country in the world ever had), the USA requires vaccination for entry by air.

And the airlines usually do check, unlike most land border agents. Although they are asking less and less.

On my trip during the Christmas holidays, my girlfriend was never asked for her proof of vaccination (and it was her 1st entry into the USA by air since the vaccination requirement was implemented; so it’s not like they had it saved from a previous trip or something). I wasn’t asked either in January 2023, same for Flytrippers’ other cofounder, and many other recent testimonials we received.

But that’s probably still more of an exception than anything else, maybe airlines just do random checks now. It’s riskier to book a plane ticket and hope they don’t ask (compared to trying at the land border, as domestic flights in the USA usually no longer have change fees).

If you tried it and managed to enter the USA by air, you wouldn’t need anything to return to Canada because all of Canada’s rules have been lifted for all travelers.


Children: Rules to travel to the USA

It’s simple, there is an exemption to enter the USA without being vaccinated for all minors (under 18).

Here is how vaccinated OR unvaccinated Canadian minors can currently travel to the USA based on those 2 sets of rules you always have to look at.


Set of rules #1

  • Rules to enter the USA
    • All minors (under 18) are exempt from the vaccination requirement
    • Nobody needs a test so kids don’t either


Set of rules #2

  • Rules to enter Canada
    • All rules have been lifted for all travelers


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It’s really quite simple to understand the rules that determine how Canadians can travel to the United States. You just need to know how to read — and take the time to do it.

What do you want to know about traveling to the United States? Tell us in the comments below.


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Andrew D'Amours

Andrew is the co-founder of Flytrippers. He is passionate about traveling the world but also, as a former management consultant, about the travel industry itself. He shares his experiences to help you save money on travel. As a very cost-conscious traveler, he loves finding deals and getting free travel thanks to travel rewards points... to help him visit every country in the world (current count: 71/193 Countries, 47/50 US States & 9/10 Canadian Provinces).

This Post Has 171 Comments

  1. Nancy

    Hi, so am I understanding this right ? Is it ACTUALLY official that the US entry vaccine mandate is ending on May 11th ?

  2. Vida

    Hi Andrew, thanks for your posts – very helpful and informative.
    For flying out of Toronto via Air Canada, is one required to upload any documents during the web check-in or at the self check-in kiosk at the airport? Or attest to the vax status?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, the last time I flew Air Canada to the USA was on December 31st and they never asked for proof at all (so not in the online check-in either), even though it was my girlfriend’s first time flying into the USA during the pandemic (so they couldn’t have had her info “saved” or anything like that). Of course we always only travel with carry-ons so maybe avoiding the Air Canada counters entirely is the key to not being asked anything, who knows. They will ask you to attest that you are vaccinated though, that is for sure (in the online check-in at least).

      1. kara

        When do you think the US will make an announcement about ending the requirement on May 11?

      2. Kara

        so the finally step is for biden to approve it since the senate has passed the bill right?

      3. Andrew D'Amours

        No, the Senate has not passed anything related to the vaccination requirement unfortunately (the House did, and they read it in the Senate on February 13th with absolutely no other actions since). What the Senate passed has nothing to do with the vaccination requirement. See here:

      4. Kara

        so what do you think the chances are that it gets passed through the senate and biden by may 11?

      5. kara

        so you don’t think it will be lifted may 11?

        Do you only need one vaccine now to travel to the USA? just trying to get things clarified

      6. kara

        Pfizer-BioNTech Comirnaty is this the new one? it’s hard to find things online about this

      7. Andrew D'Amours

        No, not Comirnaty (that’s the old one that requires 2 doses). It’s Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine (Bivalent) and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine (Bivalent).

  3. Bill

    Just for the record, I was asked if I am vaccinated at the land crossing Windsor to Detroit. He then asked for proof whereby my drivers license and Ontario health card were scanned. After waiting with the nice people in the car search area for a little while I was given a piece of paper to give to Canada customs and sent back home.
    Thanks for the testimonial, and hopefully this will all end soon 🙂

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Yes, unfortunately, some agents ask for proof even if you say you’re vaccinated. It’s not 100% guaranteed to work at the land border.

  4. George


    If customs asks for proof of vaccination, will they scan the QR code at the land border?
    Canada to USA


    1. Andrew D'Amours

      No QR code is required, so no. All that is required is a proof of vaccination, can be paper only as long as it’s in English and has the required info.
      Here’s what they require (either of the 3 options works):
      -Vaccination certificate with QR code1, digital pass via Smartphone application with QR code1 (e.g., United Kingdom National Health Service COVID Pass, European Union Digital COVID Certificate)
      -Printout of COVID-19 vaccination record or a COVID-19 vaccination certificate issued at national or subnational level or by an authorized vaccine provider (e.g., the CDC vaccination card)
      -Digital photos of vaccination card or record, downloaded vaccine record or vaccination certificate from official source (e.g., public health agency, government agency, or other authorized vaccine provider), or a mobile phone application without QR code

  5. Liste

    There is another, legal method to enter the US for unvaccinated adults. It is expensive on time and money, but I have done it myself and know others who have as well.

    1. Fly to the Bahams without any layovers in the USA (example: Toronto -> Nassau)
    2. Fly from Nassau to Grand Bahamas
    3. Take the Baleària Caribbean from Grand Bahamas to Florida

    The reason this is legal is because there are currently 3 laws preventing unvaccinated non-citizens from entering the US.

    1. No flights for unvaccinated into the US
    2. No crossing by land or sea from Canada
    3. No crossing by land or sea from Mexico

    And of course, it is also very understandable once you know the Science™ behind it.

    1. The 1st element of nature is Wind/Air – you must travel by air
    2. The 2nd element is Water – take the Ferry from the Bahamas to Florida
    3. The 3rd element is Earth – you must enter the US from land non-contiguous to the US (contiguous and contageous are basically synonyms)
    4. The 4th element is Fire – CDC scientists could think of no better way to burn money than by taking 5 flights, a couple taxies, rent a few hotel rooms and a car, and paying for a boat ride to get somewhere you could have gotten by hoping in your car and driving 30 minutes.
    5. It never harms to get a fairy involved. This is science after all, right?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Interesting, I never even noticed that it didn’t apply to all borders, despite looking at this closely for years now haha. Well, if this doesn’t convince those who suffer from Covidanxiety (and blindly believe the government) that The Science™ is absurd, I really don’t know what will.
      Must be vaccinated to enter from Canada and Mexico. But not from The Bahamas. Make it make sense…

    2. Andrew D'Amours

      Thanks for the share, will definitely write a post about this, so funny.

    3. Michel

      I am only going to say the American surely know the science better then others, Hahahahaha!!

    4. Andrew D'Amours

      By the way, the very public issue with Novak Djokovic not being able to compete in competitions in the USA could’ve been avoided if he had known your trick. He certainly can afford flying to the Bahamas and then crossing by boat. I must say I’m really flabbergasted by all this haha.

      1. Andrew D'Amours

        Oh well, I reached out to ferry companies to try and confirm. Will let you know 🙂

    5. Craig

      I am currently dealing with a nightmare situation that has an immigration wrinkle in the equation… My wife (she is a Brazilian citizen, i am American. She is awaiting approval of a green card and has been granted advanced parole which allows non-US citizens in her situation to leave and re-enter the United States) and I have a vacation planned to Costa Rica in May. The presidential proclamation requiring proof of vaccination for foreigners and the CDC website very clearly states that those granted parole (as well as other buckets such as those seeking asylum) are exempt from vaccination requirements. United Airlines is saying that she is required to have proof of vaccination, and it seems to be an issue with the travel app which requires those with a Brazilian passport to enter their proof of vaccination to allow them the ability to check in for international flights going to the United States. After arguing with a United supervisor on the phone for hours today they said they would need to check with their supervisor and they would call me back tomorrow. I have never been this frustrated and it’s insane that their app requirements contradict the CDC requirements. The app even has a section which states that certain people are exempt from the requirement, but it gives no options to select one of those exemptions as applicable to you. We will see what they say tomorrow….

      1. Andrew D'Amours

        Yes, the country’s rules are one thing, but the airline’s interpretation of the country’s rules are actually what matters, because they are the ones that decide whether you board or not. When traveling in 2020 and 2021 particularly, I can’t even count how many times airline employees were wrong, because they often are on everything. So you have to have proof from an official source and make sure to ask for supervisors… and be prepared and ready to accept that it might not, sadly.

  6. Raven

    We are looking to book a flight from Toronto to Phuket but there is a layover in Philadelphia. Is the original vaccine certificate acceptable or do we need a qr code?

  7. Bev

    HI We successfully crossed the border in to the USA without being asked about vaccination status. WE are not vaccinated and when we tried a second time we were denied. Will our passport now be flagged so we should not try again ?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, there’s no definitive answer to that.
      Many testimonials we got were from people who were denied in the past and just tried again and got in, so that would mean they don’t necessarily flag a previous attempt, but it’s not official data at all, unfortunately. But we never got any testimonials about anyone having been flagged from a previous attempt, for what that’s worth.

      Back when the land border was open for essential and business travel only, I tried entering by land since I wanted to try out whether a trip for a travel website could be considered business. I got denied entry, and the customs agent specifically said that being denied entry had absolutely no impact on future visits. That said, I didn’t lie to them, which some travelers do to try to get in without being vaccinated. That situation might be different, but it doesn’t seem like it has any impact based on those testimonials.

  8. Jolee Taylor

    Hi Andrew
    I want to take my 13 year old grandson from Canada to Phoenix for spring break. All I see is it is ok for him to go unvaccinated is this correct? Is there anything we need to do before we go. The USA rules are all over the place.
    Thank you
    Jolee Taylor

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Well, to be fair, their rules are stupid, but they’re not all over the place. Officially they’re simple: you need to be vaccinated if you are 18+, if not you do not need to be vaccinated.
      At least it’s simple to make up for the fact it makes no sense to still have rules 😛

  9. HW

    looks like the vaccine mandate for air travel has been extended to april 10 2023 (TSA emergency directive 1546-21-02B) as of a couple days ago. that being said, the directive explicitly says it only applies to air travel. any chance it could be lifted for land/sea borders? as illogical as that would be. I am vaccinated but my unvaccinated partner and I have been waiting to elope in the US!

    1. Yo

      It’s April 12, 2023. Is there any vaccine mandate changes for people entering USA?

  10. Zane

    Hey Andrew,

    Thank you for your time and effort on this. I’ve been denied access to the U.S via land through canada on multiple occasions only to be ridiculed by certain customs agents as some sort of criminal. I’m looking to fly private from a smaller airport in toronto area to Buffalo; have you found out if the requirement is exempt from private charters crossing the border ? I can’t seem to find any credible reliable source online on this circumstance, it would be greatly appreciated.

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, I’ve never heard of any exemptions unfortunately. There could be, I just have never seen any info about that.

  11. Jay

    Hello. My boyfriend is unvaccinated but not a Canadian or an American citizen. Do you think that would make a difference should we try to drive to the US from Canada? For example, when they ask for passports? He has a European passport and we’ve been searching for ways to get him to enter the US for 2 years now and having him fly to Canada and cross the border by land is the most hope we’ve had. Is the border control more easy going in a certain station, Detroit opposed to New York? Anything helps. Thank you.

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, the US rules are the same for all foreigners regardless of nationality, so I don’t see that issue really changing anything. That said, it’s likely that all of the many testimonials we got from people crossing the US border by land are Canadians.
      I haven’t had enough data to really know that one particular border crossing is better than another though :S

      1. Julie

        Maybe try crossing with a Vax exemption. You can obtain one by being a participant in the following control group from the UK. And for $30 they will actually print and mail you a plastic card with your name and picture, verifying your participation in the study.

  12. Merisa

    Im vaccinated but my husband isnt. We were able to cross into the US Queenston/Lewiston NY land boarder last week and the customs officer didnt ask if we were vaccinated and just asked how long we were gong into the US for. We told him just for the day as it was just a day trip we were doing. That was that and we got through. But now we are thinking of going to Florida for a week. Crossing the land boarder again and flying from Buffalo airport but my husband is worried because he said it might not be so easy next time and that the officer might ask us if we are vaxxed and if he tells them he’s not then we wont be able to cross and our flight, hotel and trip will be ruined. Im guessing this can happen? Since technically un vaccinated Canadians arent allowed in the US? I feel like I would take the risk and try because we just got through with no issues and would they actually ruin someones vacation? Has anyone you know thats unvaccinated actually been turned away at a land boarder? If they ask if your vaccinated do they also ask to see vaccination papers? Or do they just take your word for it? Great website by the way! Lots of very helpful information!

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Yes it can happen, you never know. It seems to be rare, but some people definitely are asked. Those who say they aren’t vaccinated are obviously denied entry, and those who lie and say they are usually aren’t asked for proof, but some are.
      That said, most US airlines charge a lot less for the fare class that comes with free changes, and almost every single hotel offers free cancelation up until 1 or 2 days before, so you could simply book a hotel starting 1 or 2 days after the planned border crossing so that you can cancel and it would be risk-free 🙂

      1. Casey D’Amours

        Hey Andrew!
        I’m going to attempt to fly into the USA, we are both unvaccinated. Our flights are Toronto-Edmonton then Edmonton-Phoenix. We are thinking of trying it or just cancelling and try by land. Which one would you do? I’ve heard of people go through both ways with no issue.

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        I would have to say that personally I would not try either to not get caught not following the rules, because of our “public” role as a reference for travelers.
        However, objectively, in terms of data, based on the many testimonials, it seems more likely to work by land than by air. That said, recently there seems to also have been a change in enforcement by air, I’ll have a post about that soon. But it’s riskier to try by air, if they ask for proof then you have to cancel your flight and with most airlines, that means paying a cancelation fee. I’ll cover that in the same new post soon too.

  13. Laura

    Hi, we are travelling as a group across a land border with one unvaccinated traveller- my husband. When and if he gets across without issue, he can board our domestic flight (BUF- MCO) without issue? Southwest web info seemed unclear, but maybe just me. It refers to travelling by plane TO USA as a non USA citizen, (stating proof of vax to board a plane inbound to the states) not necessarily specific to domestic flights for unvaxxed Canadians once within the states. Basically, if he gets over the border in the car, he’s good to go for the flight? Sorry if this is redundant. It’s a lot if money to chance.

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, here’s the section about domestic flights. In short, no country has ever had rules for domestic flights, only extremist Canada had that.
      That said, there’s still an element of risk to booking a flight: the land border agent might ask for proof, even though it’s unlikely. That said, many US airlines offer free changes on tickets, unlike in Canada (well, at a lower price than Canadian airlines ask for flexible fare classes I mean).

      1. Laura

        Thanks for clarifying. I’m going to wait and see if Biden changes things over the holiday season ( eyeroll) Southwest issues a credit good for a year, and Disney only refunds before 30 days out. It’s a small fortune to risk losing right now. I’m going to opt him out if our plans. We DID get across with him for 4th if July family visit. No one asked us anything both ways. So arbitrary.

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        It’s a lot of money for sure. Hopefully the US follows the science soon enough :S

    2. Alice

      Hello, Im curious was your husband allowed in the states unvaccinated? Im curious and just wonder 🙂

  14. Val

    My husband and I are Canadian and unvaccinated. If we drive into the usa (because apparently the customs officers routinely do not ask for vaccine proof) then fly from Bellingham to Phoenix will we be asked for proof of vaccine because we are Canadian travellers?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, this section of the post answers that question, but in short, no other country apart from Canada has ever had requirements for domestic flights, ever. It’s not a thing, and the US doesn’t have special rules for foreigners on domestic flights 🙂
      Although in case you are denied entry by land (which is obviously a possibility), maybe make sure your flight and lodging bookings have some form of flexibility to be safe.

  15. Tasha

    Hello – my 14 year old is travelling to the USA from Canada and he is unvaccinated. He will be in the states for 5 days. Does he have to isolate or take a covid test before returning to Canada?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, Canada has removed all rules and requirements for all travelers 🙂 So nothing required at all to enter here.

      1. Mike

        But that is not the question. You didn’t answer correctly

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        The question is whether there are rules to enter Canada. I answered that Canada has removed all of its entry rules. How can I answer more clearly?
        Canada no longer requires anything from anyone. So nobody needs to do anything to enter Canada 🙂

  16. Sheri

    So to be clear my unvaccinated 13 year old can travel by plane to Florida from Toronto and return back to Canada. does she require a negative test to return home or can we just download the arrivecan app and do a test on day 1 and 8 ? My husband who is unvaccinated can travel by land to the buffalo airport and fly out of buffalo to Florida ? All so confusing

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, the section for minors has bullet points to summarize it for clarity (

      No test to enter USA, tests to enter Canada, and 14-day quarantine in Canada.

      For unvaccinated adults, technically entering the USA is *not* allowed, it’s just not often checked by land. The section explains it:

      But if he does manage to enter, like every country in the world there are no requirements for domestic flights. It used to be confusing because of Canada’s rule, now it isn’t: the ONLY thing to look at is the entry rules. No other rules exist.

      1. Jake

        Can I fly from Canada to USA on a private airplane if I get a negative covid test, if I’m unvaccinated?

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        I’m not sure if rules are different by private plane, because in theory you can’t enter the US without being vaccinated, but this is only enforced by the airline usually, not the customs agents. But maybe it’s different and they do enforce it with private planes knowing there is no airline to check beforehand. I’ll try to find out.

      3. Amber

        Hello! We’re going from Toronto to Orlando in August. All adults in our group are vaccinated but my 3 year old is not. We’re flying air Canada, and everything I’ve seen so far says that kids are exempt but only if you sign an attestation that they will get a COVID test 3-5 days after landing and self isolate for 5 days regardless of results. Is this true?? Link below for source.

      4. Andrew D'Amours

        First of all, August is so far away it’s probably pointless. Everything will probably be removed. But even then, with the current rules nobody really cares if minors get a test, nobody will ask or check, so most people simply ignore it completely.

    2. Olesya Kaba

      We just came back from Dominican Republic. My 16 y.o. unvaccinated son had to do antigen test 24 hours before returning to Canada, day 1 and day 8 testing in Canada and quarantine 14 days on top of it. Your husband can actually fly with you there and back and do the rest like your son testing and quarantine

      1. Andrew D'Amours

        Yes well, the Dominican Republic is a different country so obviously, their rules are different than the US rules.
        Also, just for clarity, Canada’s pre-entry test requirement for unvaccinated Canadians has no “24 hours” limit: it’s the day of the flight or the day before (no hour-based time limit). And a molecular test within 72 hours of departure is still accepted too as an alternative.
        Here is the post about how to travel during the pandemic:

  17. Aaron

    Am I able to fly from a US city back to into Vancouver if i am unvaccinated?

  18. Aaron

    Hi, so am i able to fly from Vancouver into the USA unvaccinated since the changes have been made about the mandates recently? or is it that I can only cross by land? And would i need any tests?

      1. Aaron

        So just confirming after reading your response, once i am in the USA I am able to fly domestic within the USA unvaccinated. Is that right?

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        Yes, almost no country on Earth has ever had vaccine requirements for domestic flights (apart from Canada until recently and maybe a few rare countries) and the USA certainly have never had anything like that. Americans just wouldn’t tolerate such restrictions on the freedom of movement, let’s call it cultural differences ;P

  19. Kayla

    Hi there, I’m a non vaccinated Canadian who wants to go across the border. According to what you’ve written I can:

    – go across the border
    – need a rapid test or pre-entry test before coming back into Canada
    – fill out the arrive can app

    BUT I have to quarantine even though my pre-entry test is negative? I don’t understand the logic of the quarantine if you’re negative ?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      As I wrote, you “can” go across the border, but only if you lie to the border agents and/or if they don’t ask for proof of vaccination. They do require it officially even if they don’t seem to ask for proof very often at the land border.
      Then yes you need a pre-entry test to enter Canada and the ArriveCAN app. And you’ll not only have to quarantine for 14 days regardless of that test’s result, you’ll also have to do 2 more tests (day 1 and day 8) and you’ll still have to quarantine if those are negative too.

      It’s The Science™, it cannot be questioned. There is no logic, it’s about punishing the unvaccinated and scoring political points with the scared demographic that wants unvaccinated travelers to be punished 😛

  20. ariel davidson

    Since we are having issues getting the passports. I want to travel via land over the border from Montreal into the USA. Adults have passports its the kids that are the issue. Can we fly domestic from Burlington VT to Orlando with no passports for the kids? They are Canadian…I will have their birth certificates.

    1. Carly

      Thank you for all your advice in your article. Quick question . . .

      Can an unvaxed Canadian go to Mexico as the end destination with a layover in the USA?

      1. Andrew D'Amours

        No, you cannot transit in the US if you are not vaccinated as the US does not offer sterile international transits. In short, connecting in the US means entering the US, so you need to follow their entry rules. Here’s the section about US transits for more details.

  21. Lavanya

    Clear explanation about how Canadians people can travel to the United States in this article. Thanks for the information

  22. LK

    Hi, could you please explain the last part when you say: if negative, take the test on the full calendar day before (NOT just 24 hours). In my case, if I’m leaving on the 10th, when should I take the test?

      1. Kat

        When the airlines/customs ask for proof of vaccination, what do they do with it? Do they go through a process?

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        I can’t say for the land border since they didn’t ask me both times I went, but my plane I’ve entered many many times and they just look at the document to see if it says you are vaccinated or not. Not sure what you mean, does that answer your question?

  23. James

    Aside from the Canadian Government requirements the airlines mat have their own rules. I am a critical service worker and have an exempt certificate from Arrive-Can. However my last flight out of the USA was Delta and they require a negative test before boarding their aircraft. The Arrive-Can paperwork is strictly for the Canadian Government and it doesn’t apply to them.

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      No Delta does not have test requirements. They only apply the countries’ rules, like every other airline in the world except Etihad. However, like all other airlines, they do have employees who don’t know the rules and exemptions so that’s why it’s important that you know them well and make sure to tell them they ar wrong.

      1. Julie

        My unvaxed teenagers are booked with Delta to fly from Calgary to Guatemala City in August. They have one layover in LA. I was reassured by a Delta rep that Delta will only require what the destination is requiring, which in this case is a negative Covid test. The rep said it will not matter that they have a layover in the US. Is this correct info from what you know?

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        Yes as mentioned in this post, there are absolutely no requirements to enter the USA for those under the age of 18. So they will only check the requirements for the destination indeed 🙂

      3. Julie

        So Delta let my unvaxed 15 and 19 year olds fly from Calgary to Guatemala City via LAX. But we could not convince the Delta Rep in Guatemala City to let them return home the same way. They were adamant that they could not connect through the states, even though Delta had let them fly down through the states unvaxed. Very frustrating! Cost us over $4000 extra dollars to buy new tickets through AeroMexico, flying to Mexico city and then straight to YVR.
        Do you think it’s any use taking this up with Delta since they’d reassured me like four times on the phone before their trip that they’d be fine and also let them use one way of their return ticket, but not the other way?
        So frustrating and very expensive!

      4. Andrew D'Amours

        The vaccination requirement applies to those over 18, so the 19-year-old shouldn’t have been allowed on the outbound flight (and the 15-year-old should have been allowed on the inbound flight). I would definitely try to get them to reimburse you for your out-of-pocket expenses since it’s their mistake for sure.

      5. Raven

        when flying from Canada to USA does the original vaccine passport work or do I need the qr code ?

  24. Melody

    Hi! Thank you so much for writing these information. It really helps us planning our trip. I just have one question though, me and fiancé are both fully vaccinated and planning to fly from Bellingham to Los Angeles, however, we are crossing to the border from Vancouver. I understand that domestic flights and crossing border by land does not require covid test but we are wondering if we still need to get tested since we are crossing by land then flying to LA. I appreciate your reply. Thank you so much!

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      No, as you said, entering by land does not require a test and domestic flights do not require a test. End of story 🙂

  25. Johnny

    Hey Andrew, Thank you for your time and work on this.
    I have a question about the proof of vaccination, will our vaccination card with QR code on our mobile phones work or do we need to print out something to show when traveling from Toronto – Los Angeles?
    As for the Rapid antigen test what is the best piece of documentation to provide when arriving into the States.
    Thank you

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      The US isn’t very strict, but still, you should get the “Canadian” vaccine passport to be safe as they might not recognize a provincial name ( No need to print anything. Test can be the digital report as well 🙂 To be clear you won’t need it when arriving into the USA, it will only be checked by the airline (if it is checked t all).

  26. Isaac

    As a Canadian citizen do I need to test for domestic flights within the US?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Nobody needs anything to board a domestic flight in the US, there is no test or vaccine requirement just like almost every country in the world (except Canada).
      So if you are one of the Canadians who are very scared of unvaccinated travelers, just a good thing to know about 😛

  27. Jason

    Good morning, my family and I are looking to travel to the US in mid-April of this year. The adults are all fully vaccinated, the two children are not. The children at the time of travel would be 5 and 3. The plan would be to travel from Buffalo (we live in Niagara and its closer and cheaper), to Florida. Would this be possible and easily done? In theory, we would cross in Fort Erie by land, head to the Buffalo airport and fly to Florida that way. Then fly back to Buffalo and re-cross in Fort Erie by land.

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Yes, it’s possible and it’s by far the easiest option. The only test required would be for the 5 year-old to enter Canada, unless Canada announces a new exemption for kids.

  28. Chip

    So, if my wife and I we are double vaccinated and my 4 years old unvaccinated , and we are planning to travel to Seattle from Vancouver for less than 72 hours by land. We don’t need any Covid tests. Right?

  29. Cole

    Bonjour Andrew,

    Moi et ma famille voudrions passer la frontière américaine sans être vaccinés.
    Est-ce que les douaniers américains au Québec sont regardant sur la vaccination ?
    Peut-on juste attester verbalement en espérant qu’ils nous laissent passer ?
    Et dans le cas où ils voudraient vérifier le pass vaccinal de quelle façon ils le vérifient, en scannant le code QR ou juste en jetant un coup d’œil sur la fiche ?

    Merci pour ta réponse.

  30. Adam

    Hi, I have a question I just made a rapid test appointment the day before my flight. I fly out March 16th, and scheduled a rapid test with Walmart on the 15th. I can take the test anytime, as long as the time frame is in the date of the 15th? Can I test a week before I fly out? Or do I have to do it on the 15th. Thanks!

  31. Myriam

    Je pars pour Miami dans 2 semaines avec les enfants. Quelle genre de preuve doit-on présenter si on fait un test rapide à la maison? Mais quand je lis sur le site de CDC, il y a beaucoup d’exigences, et je ne veux pas prendre la risque de me faire virer de bord avec les enfants… :

    You can use a self-test (sometimes referred to as home test) that meets the following criteria:

    The test must be a SARS-CoV-2 viral test (nucleic acid amplification test [NAAT] or antigen test) with Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) OR the relevant national authority where the test is administered.
    The testing procedure must include a telehealth service affiliated with the manufacturer of the test that provides real-time supervision remotely through an audio and video connection. Some FDA-authorized self-tests that include a telehealth service may require a prescription.
    The telehealth provider must confirm your identity, observe the sample collection and testing procedures, confirm the test result, and issue a report that meets the requirements of CDC’s Order (see “What information must be included in the test result?” below).
    Airlines and other aircraft operators must be able to review and confirm your identity and the test result details. You must also be able to present the documentation of test results to U.S. officials at the port of entry and local/state health departments, if requested.

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Bonjour, un test fait à la maison sans surveillance par télésanté n’est pas accepté par aucun pays du monde (une des très rares règles universelles haha). Si tu n’as pas de rapport, c’est donc inutile. Ça prend un rapport de labo.
      Donc pour entrer aux États-Unis par avion, ça te prend soit:
      — un test négatif
      — un test positif ET une lettre d’un médecin
      Voici les détails:

  32. Alyssa

    Thanks for the info Andrew. One question I have I’m having trouble finding the answer to is what Canada considers 10 days post positive test to enter. The government website says, “ You must provide proof of a COVID-19 negative molecular test result to enter Canada OR proof of a previous positive test result taken between 10 and 180 days ago.” then goes on the say, “ Canadians: To avoid being fined $5,000 per traveller (plus surcharges), wait to enter Canada until the 10th day after your positive test result.” I tested positive Jan 29 @10 am. Can I fot home on February 8th? Or do I have to wait until the 9th?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      The response we got from Health Canada media relations is that the precise timing of the day is not relevant in this calculation. It’s 10 full days. So in your case you’d be allowed to board only on the 9th.

  33. Jules

    Hi, I have a coworker with a small general aviation airplane (Cessna 172). Could my coworker fly my unvaccinated friend from Pit Meadows airport (small airport near Vancouver) to Bellingham or Seattle? My friend then wants to fly solo (by commercial airline) to Mexico and then return direct to Vancouver from Mexico (also commercial airline). Do you think this would be possible? Thanks for any help

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      No because the US requires foreigners to be fully vaccinated to enter. If you can get a private plane to take you to Mexico, which has no entry requirements at all, then this would most definitely work yes.

      1. Ray

        Can you fly to Mexico on a private owned plane but stop in the USA top up fuel and continue on to Mexico?

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        That is a great question, I don’t seem to be able to find anything online about this unfortunately.

      3. Jules

        Thanks for the quick reply! Any difference if an unvaccinated person took a private boat from Vancouver to Bellingham, WA?

      4. Andrew D'Amours

        No unfortunately, the US requires foreigners to be fully vaccinated to enter. Whether it is in a car, on a plane, on a boat, on a UFO or any other mode, the US requires vaccination all the time :S

  34. Neena

    Does a Canadian vaccine passport work for proof of vaccination in Hawaii right now at their restaurants? I’ve seen that fully vaxxed Canadians flying direct no longer need to enrol in Safe Travels, but is there another requirement once you’re on the island for dining etc?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, I have not seen comments about that. But surely like most destinations, they have some way of recognizing foreign vaccination proof to allow entry to restaurants and other places since they encourage foreign visitors. You can check their tourism website or official government COVID-19 website for info. We have our hands pretty full with just the travel restrictions themselves so we’ll stick to that only, unfortunately 😛

      1. Julie

        If I am a fully vaccinated Canadian who travelled to the USA via land border in Maine and my ‘72 hour before crossing’ test comes back positive am I still allowed to cross into Canada and continue home to isolate? And how long is isolation in Canada for people who have travelled outside the country?

  35. Kristine

    Hi Andrew, I am a Canadian driving across the Detroit boarder and flying out of Metro Airport to Mexico. Do I require a covid test to board the plane? So confused lol Thank you in advance

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      No test required to enter the US by land and no test required to fly domestically (like almost every country in the world too) and no test required to enter Mexico, so you’re good 🙂

  36. William Chittick

    If i fly from France to canada, as a fully vaccinated Canadian, how long do i have to wait in canada before i can fly to the usa?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, there isn’t really a waiting period anymore, it’s just that you will be tested on arrival and required to isolate until you get the results. You should be able to leave isolation to go to the airport if you’re flying out of the country, but I’ll double-check with Health Canada since, yet again, the government website is pretty useless on this subject.

  37. Angela

    Can an unvaccinated Canadian of any age drive into the US for “non-essential” travel? From this post, it looks like that may be the case, but perhaps it was only referring to not having to test and perhaps that still means you have to provide proof of vaccination.
    Thanks for your help!

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi no unfortunately this post states that the rules are pretty clear about entering the US :S

      1. Jessica

        Hi Andrew,
        While there has been some changes on the US side of things recently, many Canadians have travelled unvaccinated to the US since November. People post their travel experiences with proof on travel groups and I personally know people who have crossed by land multiple times. So it’s not that simple. Since the 22nd, they started ‘cracking down’, hence the convoys.

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        Yeah before January 22nd, essential travelers were exempt so it makes sense that they would not verify systematically. Might definitely have changed since, all the many reports I’ve seen of unvaccinated Canadians entering the USA by land were pre-January 22nd for sure.

      3. Kris

        As soon as things change on land travel for unvaccinated traveller’s can you please let me know. I am, but my husband and son are not and we would like to drive to see my husbands family in the US since it has been way too long and they are getting old. I totally agree with your comment that at this point it should totally be a personal risk assessment everyone just has to take for themselves…since we know that fully vaccinated people can spread it and catch it just like the unvaccinated can… thanks for your help

  38. Georgia

    Hello Andrew, I love this website and article! I have a question, has an announcement been made regarding exemption guidelines for an unvaccinated Canadian citizen married to an American born citizen to enter the USA by land or air? Where can I find information? Thanks for your time.

  39. Paul

    Hi Andrew: You’ve pulled together a terrific website… and thanks to you, I’m now thinking it just might be smarter to cancel next month’s fight to Florida out of Toronto and navigate that border by flying out of Buffalo instead. And as you pointed out, U.S. fares look good. One question: On our return, even though we’re triple-vaxxed, if it turned out we had an asymptomatic but positive result on that 72-hour molecular test, what would happen when we tried to drive back across the border from Buffalo?

  40. Aurelie

    Bonjour! Pour un retour au Canada à partir du Mexique (escale aux USA)… est-ce que les USA acceptent également le PCR ou je dois faire les deux tests? (puisque les USA acceptent le test AG rapide et le Canada accepte le PCR)
    Merci beaucoup!

  41. Brent

    Wow!! So glad I discovered your site. Extremely helpful. Hearing that starting on Dec. 6th, Canadians will have to show proof of negative antigen test when entering the US (by air AND by land). Just curious about how one provides proof of this negative antigen test……isn’t this a test that you can administer yourself??
    Thank you in advance.

  42. Justine

    Can unvaccinated Canadians travel to the United States after November 8? Trip is planned for Nov 20 – 28, so would be going and coming before the “transition period” for unvaccinated is over.

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi no, you cannot. The transition period is related to Canada’s rule to board a plane departing from Canada. It is completely separate. The US has their own entry rules and they no longer let unvaccinated foreigners in.

  43. Frederic

    Hi Andrew, Can I get an official source for the requirement on Covid test to enter the US as a fully vaccinated Canadian? My research never specify a test required for people other than U.S. citizens and Legal Permanent Residents.

    Thank you!

  44. Patrica

    Can an unvaccinated Canadian fly from Florida to Costa Rica return now??

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, yes Costa Rica has no vaccination requirement. You won’t be able to return to the US though, unless you are a US citizen.

  45. Julie

    What if you are a fully vaccinated Canadian… Drive across the border to Detroit, get on a plane from Detroit to Utah?

    What’s the requirements for testing for that?

  46. Marcel

    HI, I’m not sure I understand the timing for which tests can be used to fly into the USA. If I fly to the US on Nov 5, I can get a rapid antigen on Nov 3rd and be fine?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, you can even have it done on the 2nd at any time of the day, the US is different and doesn’t care about the precise time.

  47. James

    Andrew, by far you are in my top 3 sites for direct clear information which is well organized. Bravo.
    You have mentioned the possibility of flying private or travelling by boat. Does boat mean a small yacht which can be hired to cross the ST. Lawrence?
    Don’t private flights to small US airports still require passengers to go through border patrol who would check if you are vaccinated?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, glad we can help!
      You can travel by boat but not to the US since they will require vaccination starting tomorrow. But you could go to Mexico the long way haha 😛

      1. Alyssa

        Thanks for the info! To confirm, a flight flying from Hawaii to Arizona does not require any negative tests for a Canadian traveller. Just proof of vaccination?

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        No proof of vaccination either, absolutely nothing is required for domestic flights. About 2 million Americans flew just yesterday, they wouldn’t tolerate any requirements whatsoever unlike us (cultural differences I guess) and so you do not need to be tested or vaccinated (and this is the case for domestic flights in almost every country in the world by the way).

  48. Patty

    Does anyone know if an “unvaccinated” Canadian married to an American can cross over? I’m planning to drive across the border by mid or end of November, however, I’m worry my husband won’t be allowed to go in. 🙁

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      They did not specify yet, but the current restrictions by air (completely separate) have this exemption:

      So if they keep the same exemptions as now and if they apply them to the land border too, it should work but you’ll have to confirm once they announced the actual rules.

  49. Todd

    Great post thanks.
    If you are unvaccinated and trying to fly the US before Oct 30 but don’t have a return flight till after Nov 8, (snow bird) will there be border protection stop you because you’ll be in the US unvaccinated after they’re Nov 8 mandate?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi Todd,like in most countries the only federal rule is about entry. That’s all that matters. So as long as you’re in before November 8, no issues. Some cities may have vaccine requirements for some activities of course, but that’s a minority and not many in the sunny parts of the country!

      1. james

        for unvaccinated travelers, after November 30th will they not be able to leave or return Canada at all by land sea or air ?

      2. Andrew D'Amours

        Starting November 30, those who are unvaccinated cannot board a plane in a Canadian airport.
        Entry rules are completely separate, there are no changes to entry rules so any Canadian can always enter Canada.

        But effectively, since the US is banning unvaccinated foreigners, no plane and no land means unless you leave before November 30, unvaccinated Canadians will be stuck here. Unless you fly private or use a boat. If the government goes ahead with it has announced.

  50. Doreen

    Just like to Thankyou for your site.
    It’s a blessing to be able to be informed for travel into different places and be able to know the requirements to depart & enter.🇨🇦

  51. Martin

    Does anyone know if for re-entry into Canada is the 72 hours is calculated from date of test or date of results received?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi the test itself must be performed at most 72 hours before the scheduled time of departure of your direct flight to Canada.

  52. Olive

    This is really informative. Thank you for writting this piece to guide people who are thinking of travelling to the US. I just need to confirm though, that Rapid test are accepted in both US and Canada? In BC NAAT travel test is for $200. Thanks in advance!

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, rapid antigen tests are NOT accepted to enter Canada (but to enter the USA yes). Canada only accepts PCRs and also rapid molecular tests, only available in the US though (NAATs).

  53. Deb

    I love your site, very informative.
    I read it all, but I am overloaded with information. So hopefully I am not bothering you.
    Myself and my 2 adult children are travelling from Toronto to Florida the last week of October. We are fully Vaccinated.
    1. What do we need to fly out?
    What test do we need? Where is the best place for a test in Ontario?
    What do exactly need to travel easily?
    2. Flying home, A specific test, No cost
    Walgreens or CVS ?
    Thanks for your time and help,
    Warm Regards
    Deb S

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      If nothing changes until then:
      To enter the US, you need a rapid antigen test. Shoppers Drug Mart at $40 seems to be the best option in Ontario, if not it’s $60 at YYZ directly (details:
      To enter Canada, you need a molecular test (PCR or NAAT). Walgreens is the best bet with the faster NAAT, but there are plenty of free options in almost every state, including Florida (details:

  54. Dylan

    Hi Andrew,
    When I’ve been looking to book a PCR test online at Walgreens, it asks for my state ID or state drivers license. I was able to plug my US AirBnB address in the previous step for my address, but am curious as to what you did for this step. Did you just select whatever state you’re in and enter your provincial drivers license information? Please let me know whenever you can. Thanks a lot!

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      I took the NAAT and not the PCR, so they didn’t require ID. But from other travelers’ experiences, the ID is again just to identify you correctly, they don’t mind if it’s not a US drivers license since tests are not restricted to residents, but you can double-check with the testing location specifically and let us know so we can share with other readers:)

  55. Louise Carbone

    Hi Andrew, my daughter is trying to get home to Canada from Morocco (she has been there 8 months) and unfortunately, her direct flight was cancelled. We are having a heck of a time trying to figure out if she can fly via Air France from Morocco to Boston (with a stop at CDG) and then take an AC flight from Boston to Montreal. She is not vaccinated because (anyways the vaccine in Morocco is not recognized in Canada). She will have taken her PCR test in Morocco and then take another PCR test in Boston. Will she have any trouble? Otherwise, the option was to fly RAM to JFK, get tested (PCR) and then shuttle over to LGA. Any insight you could provide would be helpful. HELP.

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, unfortunately, anyone who has been in most of Europe in the previous 14 days will not be allowed to enter the United States (unless they have US citizenship/residency). Even transits in Europe count so both Boston and New York are not options for Canadians in Europe.

      Entering the US would work after a transit in Turkey or the Gulf countries would work though (the ban is on the Schengen area—which is most of the EU—and the UK and Ireland) or from Morocco to the US directly (but I don’t see any direct flights in the short term).

      If not, she’ll have to go from Morocco to Europe then to Canada directly. In all cases, a PCR test needs to be done at the transit country (or there’s the NAAT option instead of a PCR if she transits in the US).

      The fact she is not vaccinated might preclude her from entering/transiting in some countries, so double-check that (although some countries might accept other types of vaccines than Canada). The US has no vaccine requirement if she finds a flight from Morocco to there without going through Europe.

      Hope this helps!

  56. Jerome Perrin

    I understand the rules for travelling to Canada from the US by land. However it is not clear to me what are the requirements to enter the US by land for a Canadian with a green card. Can anyone enlighten me ?

    1. Andrew D'Amours

      Hi, there are no requirements to enter the US by land (no testing required). The US website says this: “U.S. citizens, lawful permanent residents, and individuals with valid travel documents will be exempted.” So as a permanent resident with a Green Card, it seems you are allowed to enter.

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